1. "Capturing phraseology in an online dictionary for advanced users of English as a second language: a response to user needs"(This is the title of a research paper).
2. An on-line dictionary of English phraseology that illustrates common collocations with sentence examples can help advanced learners to improve their writing skills in English and expand their passive and active vocabulary.
3. How can typical phraseology be made findable?
4. Mind your phraseology! phraseology被金山词霸译为措辞，似乎也有点道理。另外，phraseology除指词某种pattern之外，还指对这种pattern的系统研究，如This Bibliography of Phraseology grew out of the series of symposia on Phraseology。看来翻译得考虑二者的区别。
This paper focuses on examining textual meanings through studying the phraseology of the text. Following Clear (1993), the paper defines ‘phraseology’ as ‘the recurrent co-occurrence of words’ (ibid.: 277). Corpus linguists examining word co-occurrences in a range of text corpora have largely contributed to our understanding of, for example, pattern grammar (e.g. Hunston and Francis 2000), phraseology (e.g. Sinclair 1987; Sinclair 1996; Sinclair 2004a; Cowie 1998;
Stubbs 2001; Tognini-Bonelli 2001, 2002; Halliday, Teubert and Yallop 2002; Teubert 2005), lexical ‘clusters’ (e.g. Biber et al. 1999; Biber et al. 2004; Simpson and Swales 2001), and semantic prosody (e.g. Louw 1993; Sinclair 1991). Biber et al. (1999), for instance, discuss lexical ‘bundles’ in terms of register variation across speech and writing, and classify them
according to the structural patterns that they encompass and the grammatical category of the end word of a lexical bundle (ibid: 996-997). Carter and McCarthy (2006: 504-505) also analyse the structure of ‘clusters’ along with their functions across different genres. The phraseological tendency of natural language, whereby words are co-selected, rather than being selected
separately constrained only by grammar, underlies Sinclair’s (2004a: 29) ‘idiom principle’. Underlying his notion of idiomaticity of natural language are the five categories of co-selection in his description of a lexical item (Sinclair, 1996, 2004a), namely the two obligatory categories of semantic prosody and the invariable core, and the three optional categories of semantic preference, collocation and colligation.
见 Concgramming: A Corpus-Driven Approach to Learning the Phraseology of Discipline-Specific Texts
Winnie Cheng The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, China
Not to be confused with Voice procedure. Phraseology appeared in the domain of lexicology and is undergoing the process of segregating as a separate branch of linguistics. The reason is clear – lexicology deals with words and their meanings, whereas phraseology studies such collocations of words (phraseologisms, phraseological units, idioms), where the meaning of the whole collocation is different from the simple sum of literal meanings of the words, comprising a phraseological unit. F.e. ‘Dutch auction’ is not an auction taking place in Netherlands. The meaning of this phraseological unit refers to any auction, where instead of rising, the prices fall (compare “Dutch comfort”, “Dutch courage”, “Dutch treat” reflecting complicated historical factors). Phraseological units are (according to Prof. Kunin A.V.) stable word-groups with partially or fully transferred meanings ("to kick the bucket", “Greek gift”, “drink till all's blue”, “drunk as a fiddler (drunk as a lord, as a boiled owl)”, “as mad as a hatter (as a march hare)”).
According to Rosemarie Gl?ser, a phraseological unit is a lexicalized, reproducible bilexemic or polylexemic word group in common use, which has relative syntactic and semantic stability, may be idiomatized, may carry connotations, and may have an emphatic or intensifying function in a text [Gl?ser 1998: 125].
The two methods capture different aspects of the phraseology of English. (1) The first method uses the concept of collocation (defined as habitual co- occurrence), and identifies frequent co-selections of two content words within a small span. In this case, the (unordered) pairs of words can be discovered au- tomatically, and generalizations can be drawn about the frequency and strength of attraction within the pairs. However, to discover the semantic relations be- tween the words, there is no alternative to examining each pair individually. (2) The second method involves colligation (the relation between content and function words, and between words and grammatical categories), and identi- fies frequent co-selections of a content word and an associated grammatical frame. In this case, the most frequent ‘chains’ can be discovered automatically, but generalizations about the constituent lexis still require manual analysis. The present paper is largely methodological, and illustrates how system- atic observation of large data sets can allow generalizations about phraseol- ogy. Work in progress will present analyses of three topics which have been mentioned here only in passing: the semantic and pragmatic features of fre- quent collocations and multi-word chains; the variation of collocations and chains across different text-types; and the functions of extended lexical units in textual cohesion.